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Vicente Guaita V. Jack Butland J. Wayne Hennessey W. Stephen Henderson S. Mamadou Sakho M. James Tomkins J. Nathan Ferguson N. Scott Dann S.
Gary Cahill G. Sam Woods Sam Woods. Patrick van Aanholt P. Tyrick Mitchell T. Nathaniel Clyne N. Joel Ward Joel Ward.
Martin Kelly M. Luka Milivojevic L. Jairo Riedewald J. James McCarthy J. James McArthur J. Jeffrey Schlupp J. Eberechi Eze E.
Max Meyer Max Meyer. Wilfried Zaha W. Andros Townsend A. Michy Batshuayi M. Jordan Ayew J. Christian Benteke C.
Connor Wickham C. Eberechi Eze Attacking Midfield. Michy Batshuayi Centre-Forward. Nathaniel Clyne Right-Back. Nathan Ferguson Centre-Back. Jack Butland Goalkeeper.
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Christian Benteke Centre-Forward. Jeffrey Schlupp Left Midfield. Andros Townsend Right Winger. Each module was identical, fully prefabricated, self-supporting, and fast and easy to erect.
All of the parts could be mass-produced in large numbers, and many parts served multiple functions, further reducing both the number of parts needed and their overall cost.
Because of its comparatively low weight, the Crystal Palace required absolutely no heavy masonry for supporting walls or foundations, and the relatively light concrete footings on which it stood could be left in the ground once the building was removed they remain in place today just beneath the surface of the site.
The modules could be erected as quickly as the parts could reach the site—indeed, some sections were standing within eighteen hours of leaving the factory—and since each unit was self-supporting, workers were able to assemble much of the building section-by-section, without having to wait for other parts to be finished.
Fox, Henderson and co took possession of the site in July and erected wooden hoardings which were constructed using the timber that later became the floorboards of the finished building.
More than 5, navvies worked on the building during its construction, with up to 2, on site at one time during the peak building phase.
Firstly stakes were driven into the ground to roughly mark out the positions for the cast iron columns; these points were then set precisely by theodolite measurements.
Then the concrete foundations were poured, and the base plates for the columns were set into them. Once the foundations were in place, the erection of the modules proceeded rapidly.
Connector brackets were attached to the top of each column before erection, and these were then hoisted into position.
The project took place before the development of powered cranes; the raising of the columns was done manually using shear legs or shears , a simple crane mechanism.
These consisted of two strong poles, which were set several meters apart at the base and then lashed together at the top to form a triangle; this was stabilized and kept vertical by guy ropes fixed to the apex, stretched taut and tied to stakes driven into the ground some distance away.
Using pulleys and ropes hung from the apex of the shear, the navvies hoisted the columns, girders and other parts into place. As soon as two adjacent columns had been erected, a girder was hoisted into place between them and bolted onto the connectors.
The columns were erected in opposite pairs, then two more girders were connected to form a self-supporting square—this was the basic frame of each module.
The shears would then be moved along and an adjoining bay constructed. When a reasonable number of bays had been completed, the columns for the upper floor were erected longer shear-legs were used for this, but the operation was essentially the same as for the ground floor.
Once the ground floor structure was complete, the final assembly of the upper floor followed rapidly. For the glazing, Paxton used larger versions of machines he had originally devised for the Great Stove at Chatsworth, installing on-site production line systems, powered by steam engines, that dressed and finished the building parts.
These included a machine that mechanically grooved the wooden window sash bars, and a painting machine that automatically dipped the parts in paint and then passed them through a series of rotating brushes to remove the excess.
The last major components to be put into place were the sixteen semi-circular ribs of the vaulted transept, which were also the only major structural parts that were made of wood.
These were raised into position as eight pairs, and all were fixed into place within a week. Thanks to the simplicity of Paxton's design and the combined efficiency of the building contractor and their suppliers, the entire structure was assembled with extraordinary speed—the team of 80 glaziers could fix more than 18, panes of sheet glass in a week  —and the building was complete and ready to receive exhibits in just five months.
When completed, the Crystal Palace provided an unrivalled space for exhibits, since it was essentially a self-supporting shell standing on slim iron columns, with no internal structural walls whatsoever.
Because it was covered almost entirely in glass, it also needed no artificial lighting during the day, thereby reducing the Exhibition's running costs.
However this caused a problem with sparrows becoming a nuisance and shooting was out of the question inside a glass building.
Queen Victoria mentioned this problem to the Duke of Wellington , who offered the solution, " Sparrowhawks , Ma'am". Paxton was acclaimed worldwide for his achievement, and was knighted by Queen Victoria in recognition of his work.
The project was engineered by Sir William Cubitt ; Paxton's construction partner was the ironwork contractor Sir Charles Fox 's Fox and Henderson, whose director Charles Fox was also knighted for his contribution.
This was the only glassworks capable of fulfilling such a large order; it had to bring in labour from France to fulfil the order in time.
The Great Exhibition was opened on 1 May by Queen Victoria. It was the first of the World's Fair exhibitions of culture and industry. There were some , objects, displayed along more than ten miles, by over 15, contributors.
France was the largest foreign contributor. The exhibits were grouped into four main categories—Raw Materials, Machinery, Manufacturers and Fine Arts.
The exhibits ranged from the Koh-i-Noor diamond, Sevres porcelain and music organs to a massive hydraulic press and a fire-engine.
There was also a foot tall Crystal Fountain. The working classes finally came to the exhibition on Monday 26 May, when weekday prices were reduced to one shilling although the price was two shillings and sixpence on Fridays, and still five shillings on Saturdays.
The Crystal Palace had the first major installation of public toilets ,  the Retiring Rooms , in which sanitary engineer George Jennings installed his "Monkey Closet" flushing lavatory  initially just for men, but later catering for women also.
It is often suggested that the euphemism " spending a penny " originated at the Exhibition   but the phrase is more likely to date from the s when public lavatories, fitted with penny-coin-operated locks, were first established by British local authorities.
The life of the Great Exhibition was limited to six months, after which something had to be decided on the future of the Palace building.
The construction of the building began on Sydenham Hill in The new building, while incorporating most of the constructional parts of the Hyde Park building, was so completely different in form as to be properly considered a quite different structure — a ' Beaux-arts ' form in glass and metal.
The main gallery was redesigned and covered with a new barrel-vaulted roof, the central transept was greatly enlarged and made even higher, and two new transepts were added at either end of the main gallery.
It was modified and enlarged so much that it extended beyond the boundary of Penge Place, which was also the boundary between Surrey and Kent.
The reconstruction was recorded for posterity by Philip Henry Delamotte , and his photographs were widely disseminated in his published works.
Within just two years the rebuilt Palace building was complete, and on 10 June , Queen Victoria again performed an opening ceremony , in the presence of 40, guests.
Several localities claim to be the area to which the building was moved. The street address of the Crystal Palace was Sydenham SE26 after , but the actual building and parklands were in Penge.
When built, most of the buildings were in the County of Surrey , as were the majority of grounds, but in the county boundary was moved, transferring the entire site to Penge Urban District in Kent.
The site is now within the Crystal Palace Ward of the London Borough of Bromley. Two railway stations were opened to serve the permanent exhibition:.
The South Gate is served by Penge West railway station. For some time this station was on an atmospheric railway. This is often confused with a metre pneumatic passenger railway which was exhibited at the Crystal Palace in , which was known as the Crystal Palace pneumatic railway.
Dozens of experts such as Matthew Digby Wyatt and Owen Jones were hired to create a series of courts that provided a narrative of the history of fine art.
Amongst these were Augustus Pugin 's Mediaeval Court from the Great Exhibition, as well as courts illustrating Egyptian , Alhambra , Roman , Renaissance , Pompeian , and Grecian art and many others.
Many of these were written by the specialists involved in creating and curating the new displays. So the guide to the Egyptian Court, destroyed in the fire [ clarification needed ] , was entitled: 'The Egyptian Court in the Crystal Palace.
Described by Owen Jones, architect, and Joseph Bonomi, sculptor'. That which included a description of the dinosaurs was entitled: 'Geology and Inhabitants of the Ancient World.
Described by Richard Owen, FRS. The animals constructed by B. Hawkins, FGS'. In the central transept was the 4,piece Grand Orchestra built around the 4,pipe Great Organ.
There was a concert room with over 4, seats that hosted successful Handel Festivals for many years. The Centre Transept of the Crystal Palace also once housed a circus and was the scene of daring feats by acts such as the tightrope walker Charles Blondin.
Over the years, many world leaders visited and were accorded special festivals, with extended published programs. That for Garibaldi was entitled "General Garibaldi's Italian Reception and Concert Saturday April 16, "; and that for the Shah : "Crystal Palace.
Saturday July 6th" From the beginning general programmes were printed, at first for the summer season, and then on a daily basis.
So, for instance, that for the summer of Programme of arrangements for the eleventh season, commencing on the 1st May, included the Shakespeare Tercentenary Festival and a course by designer Christopher Dresser.
The daily "Programme for Monday October 6th " included a harvest exhibition of fruit, and the Australasian Collection, formed by H E Pain, of materials from Tasmania, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, Australia and New Zealand; and a grand military fete was also on offer.
Many of these publications were printed by Dickens and Evans, that is Charles Dickens jnr. Another feature of the early programming were Christmas pantomimes, with published librettos, for example Harry Lemon's 'Dick Whittington and His Wonderful Cat.
Crystal Palace Christmas —70' London In , the world's first aeronautical exhibition was held in the Crystal Palace.
In , the world's first cat show , organised by Harrison Weir , was held there. Other shows, such as dog shows , pigeon shows, honey, flower shows, as well as the first national motor show were also held at the Palace.
A colourful description of a visit to the Crystal Palace appears in John Davidson 's poem "The Crystal Palace", published in In , Robert Baden-Powell first noticed the interest of girls in Scouting while attending a Boy Scout meeting at Crystal Palace.
This observation later led to the formation of Girl Guides, then Girl Scouts. In , the Festival of Empire was held at the building to mark the coronation of George V and Queen Mary.
Large pavilions were built for and by the Dominions; that for Canada, for example, replicated the Parliament in Ottawa. During the First World War, it was used as a naval training establishment, under the name of HMS Victory VI , informally known as HMS Crystal Palace.
More than , men from the Royal Naval Division , Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve and Royal Naval Air Service were trained for war at Victory VI.
Towards the end of the First War World War, the Crystal Palace re-opened as the site of the first Imperial War Museum ; in , this major initiative was fully launched with a program as the 'Imperial War Museum and Great Victory Exhibition Crystal Palace' published by Photocrom.
A few years later, the Imperial War Museum moved to South Kensington, and then in the s to its present site Geraldine Mary Harmsworth Park, formerly Bedlam.
Between 15 and 20 October , the Pageant of Labour was held at the Crystal Palace. The development of ground and gardens of the park cost considerably more than the rebuilt Crystal Palace.
Edward Milner designed the Italian Garden and fountains, the Great Maze, and the English Landscape Garden. Raffaele Monti was hired to design and build much of the external statuary around the fountain basins, and the urns, tazzas and vases.
The Palace and its park became the location of many shows, concerts and exhibitions, as well as sporting events after the construction of various sports grounds on the site.
The FA Cup Final was held here between and On the new site were also various buildings that housed educational establishments such as the Crystal Palace School of Art, Science, and Literature as well as engineering schools.
Joseph Paxton was first and foremost a gardener, and his layout of gardens, fountains , terraces and cascades left no doubt as to his ability.
One thing he did have a problem with was water supply. Water towers were duly constructed, but the weight of water in the raised tanks caused them to collapse.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel was consulted and came up with plans for two mighty water towers, one at the north end of the building and one at the south.
Each supported a tremendous load of water, which was gathered from three reservoirs, at either end of and in the middle of the park.
The grand fountains and cascades were opened, again in the presence of the Queen, who got wet when a gust of wind swept mists of spray over the royal carriage.
However, the Palace was eventually open on Sundays by , and it was recorded that 40, visitors came on a Sunday in May By the s, the Palace's popularity and state of repair had deteriorated; the appearance of stalls and booths had made it a more downmarket attraction.
In the years after the Festival of Empire the building fell into disrepair, as the huge debt and maintenance costs became unsustainable, and in , bankruptcy was declared.
A public subscription subsequently bought it from the Earl, for the nation. In the s, a board of trustees was set up under the guidance of manager Sir Henry Buckland.
He is said to have been a firm but fair man, who had a great love for the Crystal Palace,  and soon set about restoring the deteriorating building.
The restoration not only brought visitors back, but also meant that the Palace started to make a small profit once more.
On 30 November came the final catastrophe — fire. Within hours, the Palace was destroyed: the glow was visible across eight counties. Inside, he found two of his employees fighting a small office fire,  that had started after an explosion  in the women's cloakroom.
Even though 89 fire engines and over firemen arrived,  they were unable to extinguish it. The fire spread quickly in the high winds that night, in part because of the dry old timber flooring, and the huge quantity of flammable materials in the building.
Yet it will live in the memories not only of Englishmen, but the whole world". Just as in , when the north transept burnt down, the building was not adequately insured to cover the cost of rebuilding at least two million pounds.
The South Tower and much of the lower level of the Palace had been used for tests by television pioneer John Logie Baird for his mechanical television experiments, and much of his work was destroyed in the fire.
The last singer to perform there before the fire was the Australian ballad contralto Essie Ackland. Coming as it did just as the abdication crisis was reaching its terminal stage, the building's destruction was widely seen as symbolic of the end of King Edward VIII 's brief and controversial reign.
All that was left standing after the fire were the two water towers. The south tower to the right of the Crystal Palace entrance was taken down shortly after the fire, as the damage sustained had undermined its integrity and it presented a major risk to houses nearby.
Ward Ltd. The north tower was demolished with explosives in The Crystal Palace grounds were also used as a manufacturing base for aircraft radar screens and other hi-tech equipment of the time.
This remained a secret until well after the war. After the destruction of the Palace, the High Level Branch station fell into disuse, and was finally shut in After the war the site was used for a number of purposes.
Between and the Crystal Palace motor racing circuit was located in the park, supported by the Greater London Council , but the noise was unpopular with nearby residents and racing hours were soon regulated under a high court judgment.
In northern corner of the park is the Crystal Palace Bowl , a natural amphitheatre where large-scale open-air summer concerts have been held since the s.
These have ranged from classical and orchestral music, to rock, pop, blues and reggae. The likes of Pink Floyd, Bob Marley, Elton John, Eric Clapton and the Beach Boys all played the Bowl during its heyday.
The stage was rebuilt in with an award-winning permanent structure designed by Ian Ritchie. The Bowl has been inactive as a music venue for several years and the stage has fallen into a state of disrepair, but as of March London Borough of Bromley Council are working with a local action group to find "creative and community-minded business proposals to reactivate the cherished concert platform".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the iron-and-glass structure which housed the Great Exhibition. For other uses, see Crystal Palace disambiguation.
Former building originally in Hyde Park, London, relocated to Sydenham, South London. Main article: The Great Exhibition.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Main articles: Crystal Palace Park and Crystal Palace Dinosaurs. Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 4 April Children's Encyclopedia of British History.
London: Kingfisher Publications. Michael Slater Douglas Jerrold. London: Duckworth. In fact the term "Crystal Palace" itself is used seven times in the same issue of Punch pages iii.
It seems clear, however, that the term was already in use and did not need much explanation. Other sources refer to the 2 November Punch issue bestowing the "Crystal Palace" name on the design by Terry Strieter Nineteenth-Century European Art: A Topical Dictionary.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. And "Crystal Palace". Retrieved 21 November The term 'Crystal Palace' was first applied to Paxton's building by Punch in its issue of 2 November Punch had originally sided with The Times against the exhibition committee's proposal of a fixed brick structure, but featured the Crystal Palace heavily throughout for example in "Punch Issue ".
Archived from the original on 20 April Any earlier name has been lost, according to "Everything2 Crystal Palace Exhibition Building Design ".
The use by Mrs Mouser was picked up by a reference in The Leader , no. Paxton is to build for the Exposition of The Crystal Palace and the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations.
London: Athlone. It was essentially a modular building of iron, wood and glass, built of components which were meant to be recyclable.
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